The word periodontal literally means "around the tooth." Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth.
Periodontal diseases present significan challenges for the dental profession and the general public. Despite advancements in periodontal therapy, periodontal diseases are still the major cause of tooth loss in adults.
Types of Periodontal Disease
There are many forms of periodontal disease. The most common ones include the following.
Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes the gums to become red, swollen, and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good at home oral care.
A form of periodontitis that occurs in patients who are otherwise clinically healthy. Common features include rapid attachment loss and bone destruction and familial aggregation.
A form of periodontal disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment and bone loss and is characterized by pocket formation and/or recession of the gingiva. It is recognized as the most frequently occurring form of periodontitis. It is prevalent in adults, but can occur at any age. Progression of attachment loss usually occurs slowly, but periods of rapid progression can occur.
Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases
Periodontititis, often with onset at a young age, associated with one of several systemic diseases, such as diabetes.
Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases
An infection characterized by necrosis of gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. These lesions are most commonly observed in individuals with systemic conditions including, but not limited to, HIV infection, malnutrition and immunosuppression.
Treatment of Periodontal Disease
If you're diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease, and the tissue around your teeth cannot be repaired with non-surgical treatment, you may require periodontal surgery.